In 1968, the Harvard Business Review magazine published one of its most popular articles in the history of its existence – One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?
(vol. 46, iss. 1, pp. 53–62). This article described Frederick Herzberg’s study on the elements that lead to satisfied employees and the elements that lead to dissatisfied employees. Frederick Herzberg explained his research using a two factor theory.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Explained
To summarize Herzberg’s two-factor theory, the factors that make an employee satisfied at work are different than the factors that make an employee dissatisfied.
View the video below for a quick summary of his model:
Herzberg’s model was based on a set of interviews targeting accountants and engineers from Pittsburgh. The participants were asked to describe experiences at work when they felt exceptionally positive or negative feelings, and to provide the reasons that gave rise to those feelings. It was discovered that the factors leading to job satisfaction were different than the factors leading to job dissatisfaction.
Based on Frederick Herzberg’s research, the elements that lead to job satisfaction are:
– The work itself
– Increased responsibility
The elements that lead to job dissatisfaction are:
– Company policy
– The relationship with your direct supervisor
– The work conditions
– The relationship with peers
– A lack of job security
Criticism towards the dual factor theory
This model has been criticized for making the assumption that satisfied workers are more productive than dissatisfied workers. Despite this valid criticism, I put the essence of this model into good use when I focus on increasing employee engagement during change initiatives. I use Herzberg’s top two elements for job satisfaction, (1) achievement and (2) recognition, to create a greater sense of positive involvement during change.
When employees are given the opportunity to achieve a task, and receive recognition for this achievement from people whose opinion they value, the initiative as a whole will gain momentum in the right direction – one small win at a time.
Thinking about my own experiences, I am much more apt to adopt a change when I am given the opportunity to achieve a new task and to be recognized for my achievements. I’m not saying that achievement and recognition is the sure way to successful organizational change, but it’s a simple and straightforward way to help move the change in the right direction. Next time you create a training and rollout plan, break down new tasks in a way that they can be comfortably achieved and make sure the management team and other change leaders praise new behaviours at the right time. You may see a big improvement. What have you got to lose?
So Who Is John Kotter Anyway?
John Kotter is a professor at Harvard University and is regarded as an authority on leadership and change. He did both his undergraduate and master’s degrees at MIT before completing his doctorate degree in Business Administration at Harvard University. (source: Kotter International)
Leading Change – Explained
John Kotter outlines eight steps that organizations need to take to successfully implement change:
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Create a guiding coalition
3. Develop a change vision
4. Communicate the change vision
5. Empower broad-based action
6. Generate short-term wins
7. Don’t let up
8. Make the change stick
You can view the video below for a quick summary of his model:
Here are some additional hints for applying the 8 Steps to Leading Change Model.
Establish A Sense Of Urgency
Similar to other models, building a sense of urgency is a necessary step to implementing change successfully. If you don’t find a way to make the change exciting, compelling and necessary, you may find the implementation phase a little more challenging than it should be. When I formulate my communication messages, the “urgency” undertone is created by my thorough understanding of the organizational challenge(s) that want to be resolved (or the opportunities to be won). I do this by digging deep within the organization to uncover the history of the problem, the audiences impacted by the upcoming change and the reasons why the organization needs to change – such as the cost of change vs. the cost of doing nothing. With a thorough understanding of the purpose of the change, I can communicate the change initiative to the organizational stakeholders with a sense of urgency that is catered to each of the stakeholder groups.
Get The Right Organizational Leaders To Promote The Change
I cannot stress enough the importance of getting the right organizational leaders to sponsor the change initiative. From my point of view, designating the appropriate set of leaders to steer the change initiative in the right direction is paramount to the overall success of the project. The best case scenario would be to have the CEO and the executive leadership team support and steer the change initiative. If this is not possible, I would recommend having at least the departmental leaders and managers of the impacted stakeholders to actively commit, show support and promote the change. If not, it will be easier for the impacted employees to regress or hold onto their old behaviors and old technologies simply because the employees may observe conflicting behaviors or assigned tasks from their managers that contradict the change initiative.
I’ve been on both sides of this continuum. I was able to work with the appropriate leaders and managers to push a change initiative forward, but I’ve also been part of other change projects that weren’t properly backed by the organizational leaders. In the latter situation, I found that I received plenty of lip service where people would seem curious about the change, but not give any real effort in exhibiting the new behaviors. In short, there was no commitment to move the change forward. When this occurs, it is a slippery slope that results in one project extension after another.
Of course, the project goals were eventually met once the appropriate leaders got involved. To avoid this drawback, ensure that the right leaders and managers are actively promoting the change at the start of the initiative and make use of their authoritative power to eliminate barriers.
Generate Short Term Wins To Gain Momentum
Politicians, Hollywood actors and teen pop-stars would all secretly agree that perception is everything – try telling otherwise to someone like Jennifer Lopez. Perception is also important on change initiatives, especially at the start when is it imperative to get the change project started on the right foot. The strategy I like to keep in mind when identifying short-term wins is to identify tasks and milestones that are easy to implement, low risk and highly visible to employees. These “quick wins” can then be used to broadcast the progress of the change initiative to others and gain momentum towards a successful campaign. In other words, “don’t try to boil the ocean”. One of my past projects involved replacing an outdated ERP system in several catering centers across Canada. Because changing the ERP system in all of the centers at once would be too risky, we chose to replace the outdated ERP system one centre at a time. By implementing change one centre at a time, we were able to communicate our successes to the other centres to gain momentum and acceptance in advance. We were also able to focus on centre-specific issues, which resulted in a superior user-experience for that centre.
As we implemented the new ERP system in each centre, we were able to have the actual employees promote the new system from inside the company. This increased the momentum of the change exponentially.
As always, remember to use more than one change model when implementing change to cover all angles – as far as I know, there is no all-encompassing change model. If used properly and in the right context, Kotter’s model can be an excellent tool for leading employees through complex change initiatives. Metaphorically speaking, Kotter’s model is one of the first tools I use out of my toolbox.
Here it is. My first post in the vast land of the Internet. The journey has begun. Frankly, I don’t know where this site will take me. The first few articles will most likely be focused on discussing my favorite change management models and answering general questions I’ve been asked while on change engagements. One thing I know for sure is that I plan to base all content on my own personal experiences. Wishful thinking would lead me to believe that the honest and genuine undertones of my articles will be appreciated by some random, high-powered individuals who say – “wow, that guy’s amazing – we need him on our team”.
Unrealistic dreams aside, I’m hopeful that this blog will transform into a jive with academics and corporate citizens alike – exchanging experiences and promoting different ways of implementing change. (Or perhaps it may be more of a dance-off where I put my best foot forward, get challenged by my readers and fellow bloggers, go back and forth and end up with an experience that benefits us all.) If nothing else, I plan to enjoy the dance.
Wherever it takes me, I’m really looking forward to seeing what this blog becomes. Hopefully you’ll be interested too.